- Why should a child have bacteria?
- Which intestinal bacteria can cause disease?
- Why does the child have a problem?
- How does dysbiosis appear in infants?
- Symptoms in older children
- Diagnostic methods
- How to warn?
- Video on topic
Dysbacteriosis in medicine is a violation of the normal ratio of useful and other bacteria in the human body. Most often, dysbiosis is registered in children. On the one hand - the child's body does not have sufficient protection in connection with the inactive work of one's own immunity.
On the other hand, it is easier for children to be examined to conduct a diagnosis. Adults do not consult a doctor very often when there is a suspicious symptom. Dysbacteriosis is transferred by 95% of children. The threat to the health of the baby due to the violation of the bacterial flora of the intestine, from the period of the newborn to the age of one year depends mainly on external causes( organization and quality of feeding, nursing).
In 5-6 years the child is sufficiently acquainted with the world and collects conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, which are restrained by immune cells. On whether it will be possible to cope with the manifestations of symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in children under one year, a further prognosis of physical development and the risk of pathology formation of the gastrointestinal tract will depend in the future.
Why should a child have bacteria?
Immediately after birth, the baby's body is sterile. Colonization begins with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, received from the mother during lactation. They contain the necessary enzymes for the breakdown of the constituent components of breast milk and assimilation through the intestinal wall.
These bacteria in the baby make up 99% of the entire intestinal flora. The laboratory way in the analysis of stool is the counting of CFU( colony forming units).On the basis of the conclusion, the doctor judges dysbiosis, degree of injury. Functions of bifidobacteria:
- cleavage of proteins, fats and carbohydrates to molecules freely penetrating the intestinal wall into the bloodstream;
- synthesis of vitamins;
- activation of peristalsis;
- neutralization of slags and toxins;
- providing local immunity.
The value of lactobacilli is:
- in the synthesis of lactic acid to provide the necessary acid-base balance of the body;
- production of the enzyme lactase, which cleaves the milk protein;
- stimulating other enzyme systems;
- to combat the pathogenic flora.
The normal level is within the range of 106-107 cfu / g. At a low level there is insufficient assimilation of milk, it is possible to form intolerance. Babies are disturbed by constipation, allergic reactions( diathesis).Equal to lactobacilli, the prevalence in the intestine of a baby without dysbiosis is escherichia( a useful strain of Escherichia coli).
They are needed:
- for digestion process;
- against pathogenic bacteria;
- activation of immunity.
Quantity decreases if the cause of dysbiosis in a child is a helminthic infection. In addition, the level of E. coli with reduced enzyme activity is important. If in the structure they exceed 10%, then the indicator indicates the signs of dysbacteriosis.
The number of these three varieties of intestinal bacteria affects the dysbacteriosis in a month-old baby. Bacteroides are useful microorganisms that appear at the age of 6 months. Gradually, they colonize the child's gastrointestinal tract. The norm in older children is 107-108 cfu / g. The main function is participation in the splitting of fats.
In addition to the listed functions, the bacterial flora of the intestine provides:
- assimilation from the food of the most important trace elements( iron, copper, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium), vitamin D;
- participate in the synthesis of vitamins K, the whole group B;
- binding, neutralization and excretion of heavy metals salts, toxins, nitrates with feces.
Early introduction of complementary foods adversely affects the intestinal flora of the child
What intestinal bacteria can cause the disease?
The listed 4 types of microorganisms are necessarily present in a healthy child. Conditionally pathogenic properties are possessed by bacteria that support digestion under normal immunity and environmental reactions. With a decrease( for example, during ARVI, teething) they go to the side of pathology.
To "trait micro-organisms" are: enterococci, peptostreptococcus, saprophytic staphylococci, Candida fungi, clostridia. Pathogenic microorganisms should not be normal. Their presence in the baby is caused by infection with an intestinal infection. Dysbacteriosis of the intestine in young children becomes a complication.
The most common are:
- salmonella - the disease is characterized by severe course with severe intoxication, sepsis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis;
- shigella - a known causative agent of dysentery, affects the large intestine, flows with intoxication, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, false painful urge to defecate;
- Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of pustular skin lesions, allergic reactions, "scourge" of maternity wards( rapidly spreading, giving death from neonatal sepsis).
Why does the child have a problem?
The causes of dysbiosis in children are largely determined by the type of feeding. Immunity and beneficial bacteria the newborn receives with colostrum in the first 2 hours after applying to the maternal breast. This process is given enormous importance in the prevention of dysbiosis in infants.
The causes of dysbacteriosis in infants( in infants who are breastfed) can be:
- delayed attachment to the breast( after 2-3 hours after birth) with difficult births, severe condition of the newborn or mother;
- the need for antibiotic treatment of a nursing mother or baby;
- violation by the mother during the lactation of the diet due to the use of possible allergens, products that cause gassing in the intestines;
- irrational artificial or mixed feeding;
- frequent change of mixtures with artificial feeding;
- food poisoning or intestinal infection.
What the child is worried about, the mother should understand, the doctor will help
For the older child, among the causes of dysbiosis are:
- a violation of the diet due to overfeeding with flour, culinary culinary products, sweets;
- diseases of the digestive system - with dyspeptic syndrome;
- reduced immunity and frequent respiratory illness;
- independent use by parents of medicines without a reasonable prescription of the doctor, excess dosage, course of treatment;
- parasitic infections, helminthic infestations;
- susceptibility to allergic reactions;
- hormonal failure during growth and puberty, with endocrine pathology;
- the consequences of surgery on the abdominal organs;
- transferred stresses;
- disadvantaged situation in the family, at school.
How does dysbacteriosis develop in infants?
Detection of a dysbacteriosis in a newborn is alarming to the pediatrician and requires checking the compliance with the feeding regime of the nursing mother. Dysbacteriosis in infants can be suspected through a rumbling stomach, crying at night from colic and discomfort, bloating and frequent gas leakage, abundant regurgitation( "fountain"), a liquid stool up to 15 times a day, feces have a foamy character, contain particles of undigested milk.
Symptomatology in older children
Dysbacteriosis in older children, causes symptoms, which not only parents pay attention but also small patients. In 3-4 years old kids try to tell and show where it hurts. The child is observed:
- alternation of constipation and diarrhea;
- feces have an unpleasant odor, contain undigested lumps of food;
- abdomen is swollen and constantly grumbling;
- complaints of cramping abdominal pain 1-2 hours after eating;
- manifestations of skin allergy;
- milk intolerance( lactose);
- low immunity, frequent viral diseases;
- lag in physical development from peers;
- poor appetite;
- weight reduction.
Signs are the result of a decrease in the activity of a useful bacterial flora, untimely digestion of food. Frequent incomprehensible pains make the child nervous, capricious. He does not sleep well, cries, complains of fatigue.
At school age, the child does not cope with the load, has a poor academic performance.
. Diagnostic methods.
. Changing the behavior of the kid and schoolboy should alert the parents. Cases have become more frequent when a teacher leads a pediatrician to a child. Any complaints of abdominal pain should not leave indifferent adults indifferent.
To accurately confirm the dysbacteriosis you need a test:
- Bacterial stool analysis and intestinal flora. Feces are collected in a sterile jar and delivered within two hours to a laboratory for sowing. If this condition is not met, then it is impossible to judge the reliability of the results, since some bacteria will die.
- Study of feces on the coprogram allows you to check the progress of food digestion in the intestine.
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs is necessary to exclude primary pathology, congenital disorders of the structure.
- The general blood tests judge the absence of anemia. Biochemical tests are carried out to determine the damage to the liver and pancreas.
If necessary, the doctor prescribes a more "targeted" study of organs. With unclear symptoms, to find out how to treat a dysbacteriosis in a baby, sometimes it is necessary to examine a nursing mother.
To cure dysbacteriosis, the patience of parents, the organization of control over nutrition, the elimination of the main cause, with which problems are connected, will be required. Gastroenterologists advise in such cases a comprehensive approach. In the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in the child, it is necessary to provide proper nutrition, medication, symptomatic means.
Children under one year of age should receive breast milk. It is recommended to at least supplement with a decrease in lactation. Such a natural way will help "populate" the intestines of the baby with the necessary flora. Artificial animals need the safest milk formula. Do not change them frequently.
If the child is older than a year, the ration should necessarily contain dairy products: yogurt, yogurt, curd of medium fat content( no more than 5%), fermented baked milk, yogurt, sour cream. Sugar is limited, so you need to teach you how to drink kefir unsweetened.
To choose the best milk formula pediatrician
will help. It's necessary to exclude baking pastry, confectionery products, all fried and fatty, chocolate, sausage, sausages, sauces, condiments, ketchup, carbonated drinks, fast food products. These products are harmful even to a healthy child. Vegetables can be cooked in the form of stewed puree, vinaigrette without salt ingredients, grated salad.
Sour fruits are temporarily excluded. Showed bananas, baked apple. The use of a diet is sometimes sufficient to correct digestion. If after 10 days of rational nutrition there are no results, then medicines are prescribed.
Features of drug therapy
The transition to drug therapy aims to:
- to suppress or destroy the pathogenic microflora found in the intestine - prescribe a short course of antibiotics, bacteriophages( for dysentery, salmonellosis);
- to bring useful bacteria into the intestines and promote their reproduction - prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics are used for this;
- withdraw from the intestine accumulated slag, toxins with the help of preparations of a group of sorbents;
- compensate for the loss of vitamins, stimulate the development of immunity.
Probiotics are the main drugs containing living beneficial bacteria. For children, the forms in soluble powder, syrup, and drops are more suitable. Pediatricians appoint: Bifiform, Lineks, Acipol, Bifidumbacterin, Enterol. They contain a different concentration of bifido- and lactobacilli. Suitable for children of the first month of life.
Prebiotics - do not contain bacteria, but help to nourish them and create favorable conditions for reproduction. Therefore, keep the incoming bacteria and protect them. The class of synbiotics is a combination of pro- and prebiotics.
To purify the intestines from toxins, slags are assigned enterosorbents( Smecta, Polysorb).They bind harmful substances and take them out with feces. Especially important for dysbacteriosis, caused by intestinal poisoning, taking medications. Spasmolytics and enzymatic agents are used to relieve colic attacks and bloating.
The composition is diluted in boiled water in accordance with the instructions of
. How to warn?
For the prevention of intestinal dysbiosis in children it is recommended:
- to feed the child only with age-restricted products, not to give "adult" dishes, fried, smoked;
- not allow long breaks in feeding, as well as overfeeding pies, cakes, sweets;
- not engage in self-medication;
- with constipation use a correction of nutrition, not laxatives;
- to control what a school-age child is buying on the way from school.
All requirements for the prevention and treatment of dysbiosis in children are presented to close adults. You can not start signs of digestion disorders and complaints about abdominal pain. The formation of chronic inflammatory processes in childhood increases the risk of "adult" pathology.