Shrinks legs cramp, why, what is the cause, what are the symptoms, first aid and prevention

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Probably, everyone has ever suffered from the fact that at night the leg cramps so much that you do not know what to do and want to climb onto the wall and moan. Someone very rarely experiences this convulsive symptom and does not remember when it was the last time, but there are people who suffer regularly from cutting their feet, especially at night.

Leg cramps are an extremely unpleasant, involuntary and painful numbness in the muscles of the lower extremities. The convulsive contractions in the legs have different duration, intensity of manifestation and prevalence.

It turns out that there is a one-stage contraction of muscle groups - flexors and extensors, as a result, it becomes very painful and the slightest attempt to stir is accompanied by an incredible increase in the pain syndrome, the person moans, grabs the folds of bed linen, does not know what to do with the expression "desireclimb on the wall "is not so fantastic.

As a result, the leg is fixed bent at an angle of about 45 degrees, and caviar, foot and thighs seem to feel and feel like "wooden" or "stone".At the person there is a feeling, that just about in a gastrocnemius muscle the veins will burst from a pressure and pressure.

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Physicians classify seizures as a function of duration, degree of involvement of muscles, and locations of localization. We understand that there are a lot of reasons for the occurrence of seizures. Most often, convulsive muscle contractions are episodic and do not need special treatment. However, when convulsions are often troubled, it can be a signal of some diseases and conditions that we will consider today.

By the way, there are effective means in your arsenal of cramps at home, so simple that you do not even suspect it. But, as they say, about everything in order.


What are cramps in the legs?

Leg cramps at night

Cramps of legs at night are especially unpleasant and painful. Abrupt pain leads to awakening, the contracted muscle ceases to hurt at once. Night cramps occur in both children and adults, at the same time it should be noted that the age factor has not the least role.

Causes of nocturnal seizures can be:

  1. Muscle fatigue.
  2. Problems in the work of the nervous system.
  3. Pregnancy period.
  4. Some diseases that result in a decrease in the normal flow of blood to the extremities.
  5. Taking certain medications.
  6. Lack of vitamins and trace elements.
  7. Flat feet.

There is an opinion that convulsions at night are associated with the man's posture in a dream: knees are slightly bent, and the feet are lowered down. This provokes shortening of the muscles, which causes painful spasms.

It is recommended to immediately try to straighten the knee and pull the toes of the legs towards you, that is upwards.

Finger cramps

Why does the toe cramp occur? In the beginning, perhaps, it is necessary to understand the similar reason why the feet are cramping with a spasm. Finger cramps always occur abruptly and unexpectedly. Can pull as one, and several fingers at once. There are several possible reasons:

  1. Wearing uncomfortable, tight shoes.
  2. Subcooling of feet.
  3. Lack of vitamins and trace elements.
  4. Violation of normal circulation in the feet.

Cramps of the calf muscle

The gastrocnemius cramp is the most painful of all kinds of spasms. A few moments before the spasm you can feel a light stretch of muscle.

The gastrocnemius muscle more often than all other groups of muscles of the lower limbs, reduces the cramp.

Symptoms of gastrocnemius:

  1. Severe pain.
  2. The leg is very tense in the place of spasm.
  3. It's impossible to stand upright.
  4. Muscles become very elastic and dense.

Causes of calf seizures:

  1. Vitamin and micronutrient deficiency.
  2. Chronic fatigue due to prolonged stay on legs, exhausting sports.
  3. Venous insufficiency.
  4. Atherosclerosis.
  5. Swelling of the feet.
  6. Drug use of diuretics.
  7. Diseases of the lumbar spine.

Causes of seizures: primary and secondary

Primary causes

Primary( idiopathic) convulsions occur for no apparent reason. Presumably, the appearance of primary muscle spasms can be affected by:

  1. Muscle overexertion as a result of physical exertion. If a person spent the whole day on their feet without rest, was very tired during sports, wore heaviness or walked a long distance in uncomfortable shoes, there is a malfunction in the muscles. In such cases, the likelihood of muscle spasms increases.
  2. Sudden blood circulation in the limbs.
  3. Natural shortening of tendons, which occurs in old age.
  4. Inconvenient posture during sleep.

Secondary causes of

Deficiency of vitamins and trace elements leads to rapid fatigue and as a result - to secondary causes of seizures. Secondary causes of seizures are symptoms of certain diseases, as well as disorders in the functioning of the human body:

Magnesium deficiency .This micronutrient is necessary for the normal process of muscle contraction. The lack of magnesium can be associated with improper nutrition. Sometimes the cause of a deficiency of this microelement can be diseases that prevent the normal absorption of magnesium entering the body.

Symptoms of magnesium deficiency are:

  1. insomnia, rapid fatigue;
  2. depression;
  3. back pain;
  4. frequent fractures and dislocations;
  5. headaches;
  6. high blood pressure;
  7. arthritis;
  8. heart disease;
  9. frequent cramps and nervous tics of the eyes. Calcium deficiency .Calcium is the physiological "partner" of magnesium. Lack of calcium can also trigger the onset of seizures. The main signs of calcium deficiency in the body include:
    1. fragile and painful bones;
    2. split, unhealthy hair, brittle nails;
    3. unhealthy teeth;
    4. loss of strength, irritability;
    5. convulsions.

    Calcium and magnesium deficiency can lead to significant changes in the biochemical composition of the blood after a while.

    Lack of iron in the body( anemia) .Since iron is involved in oxygen saturation of cells, its lack can provoke muscle spasm.

    Deficiency of glucose in the body .It can occur during diets, as well as as a result of the use of sugar-lowering drugs.

    Sharp changes in body temperature of a person .Usually cause short-term cramps. They can occur during the disease, as well as as a result of a sunstroke.

    Irritation of the motor area of ​​the brain .The area of ​​the brain that is responsible for muscle contraction can be exposed to nerve impulses:

    1. for influenza;
    2. during a stroke, as well as during rehabilitation after it;
    3. with ARVI;
    4. for alcohol poisoning.

    Diseases of the vessels of the legs .During vascular disease, normal blood flow is disturbed, as a result of which tissues do not receive the required amount of oxygen. Local hypoxia develops. Diseases of the lower parts of the spine .During these diseases, the nerve endings are jammed, which leads to a violation of the sensitivity of certain muscle groups.

    High temperature outside the window. The body during the heat with sweat loses a lot of fluid and salts, which can lead to the onset of seizures.

    Receiving contraceptive hormonal medications .

    Causes of frequent seizures

    For example, overweight is one of the causes of frequent leg cramps. If the seizures are not disturbed occasionally, but rather often, the reasons for this may be:

    1. Muscular overwork. Excess weight.
    2. Frequent stress and emotional stress.
    3. Disorders of endocrine and nervous systems.
    4. In no case can you ignore the frequent muscle spasms.

    A doctor should be consulted, as regular convulsions can be a signal of many serious illnesses.

    Convulsions in pregnant women

    During pregnancy, almost all women complain of muscle cramps in the legs. This is quite normal phenomenon, which disappears without a trace after the birth of the baby. Causes of frequent seizures in expectant mothers:

    1. Overweight.
    2. The enlarged uterus exerts pressure on the vessels and nerve endings of the legs, resulting in impaired blood circulation.
    3. The volume of blood increases, causing swelling of blood vessels and tissues.
    4. Predisposition to varicose veins.
    5. High demand for vitamins and microelements.
    6. Change in hormonal status.

    Seizures in children

    In children, the occurrence of seizures is most often associated with active growth and development of the entire body. The main causes of spasms in children are:

    1. Leg cooling.
    2. Flat feet.
    3. The lack of vitamins.
    4. Finding the legs in an uncomfortable position for a long time.

    Diagnosis of pathology

    Doctor's consultation is necessary to identify the causes of frequent leg cramps. With regular convulsions, you must always see a doctor. To begin with, you need to visit a therapist who will conduct an examination and prescribe the necessary tests.

    Probably, the doctor will send for consultation to another specialist: neurologist, endocrinologist, cardiologist.

    If the cause of spasms is any disease, then after the course of treatment, the cramps should pass. If any diseases that could cause seizures, not found, you just need to adhere to simple preventive recommendations.

    What to do: Ways to combat leg cramps

    At the very beginning, you just need to eliminate the cause that causes seizures.

    Over time, from painful spasms, only memories will remain.

    Advice for those who want to get rid of seizures once and for all:

    1. It is necessary to revise and diversify your diet.
    2. Do sports moderately, avoid overexertion.
    3. Do not abuse diuretics.
    4. Perform simple stretching exercises.

    Video: Causes and methods of treatment of leg cramps

    How to provide first aid for cramps?

    1. You do not need to panic if you cramp your legs at night.
    2. It is necessary to relax and breathe deeply to improve the blood supply of tissues.
    3. Next, you need to gently stand on the floor, put your feet together and straighten your back.
    4. You can pull the foot towards you. It will hurt, but you need a little patience. When the muscle is slightly stretched, the spasm will pass.
    5. If the cramp does not go away, you can pinch your foot, rub it.
    6. Massage with warming ointment helps.
    7. After an attack, it is necessary to lie down so that the legs are above the level of the head.

    It often happens that a spasm causes a foot in the water: at sea, in the pool. This is dangerous, so you need to know how to act in such cases. If the cramp has brought a leg in the pool, you need to stop bathing. If the spasm grasps the muscle at depth in the sea, the actions should be as follows:

    1. Roll over from the stomach to the back.
    2. Try to pull the foot towards you.
    3. If the cramp does not pass, pin will be punctured into the area of ​​the muscle cramped muscle, which you just need to pin to the swimsuit or swimming trunks just in case.
    4. Seizures most often occur in cold water. Do not swim in water, the temperature of which is below 18 degrees.

    Prevention of painful spasms

    Charge in the morning - a preventative measure against frequent leg cramps.

    This problem can be avoided by following the following recommendations:

    1. Wear comfortable high-quality shoes.
    2. Avoid excessive loads on the feet.
    3. Do exercises in the morning.
    4. Reduce the amount of coffee consumed.
    5. Regularly do foot massage.
    6. Excellent contrast shower helps.
    7. A variety of food saturates the body with vitamins and trace elements.

    If you follow all the recommendations, you can avoid such an unpleasant phenomenon as convulsions.

    Conclusions and recommendations

    1. Seizures are involuntary contraction of muscles, which can occur in both children and adults.
    2. Causes of seizures can be a lack of vitamins in the body, and some diseases, as well as physical activity.
    3. Most often, seizures occur at night.
    4. During pregnancy, muscle spasms affect almost all women, and do not require special treatment.
    5. Seizures in children are associated with the growth and development of the whole body.
    6. Diagnosis of seizures is very important, as it helps to identify certain diseases.
    7. It is important to know how to give first aid at the time of the spasm. Especially dangerous are muscle spasms during swimming in the pool or at sea.
    8. If you carry out simple preventive measures, you can avoid this extremely unpleasant phenomenon.

    Source: edition of the publication http: // bolezni-nevrologii /nevralgija/ prichiny-sudorog-nog.html